مقایسه اثر روغن دانه های کتان و سیاه‌دانه بر میزان آنزیم های کبدی وبرخی از فاکتورهای التهابی در موش های صحرایی نر مبتلا به کبد چرب غیرالکلی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه آموزشی زیست شناسی، واحد شیراز، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی،شیراز، ایران

چکیده

ک
کبد چرب از اختلالات شایع متابولیکی است که میلیون­ها نفر در جهان به آن مبتلا هستند، با توجه به عوارض جانبی بسیاری از داروهای شیمیایی که در درمان این بیماری مورد استفاده قرار می­گیرند این مطالعه با هدف بررسی اثر روغن دانه­های کتان و سیاه دانه بر میزان سرمی آنزیم­های کبدی و برخی از فاکتورهای التهابی در موش­های صحرایی نر مبتلا به کبد چرب غیرالکلی انجام گردید. در این مطالعه تجربی از تعداد 40 سر موش صحرایی نر بالغ که به 5 گروه 8 تایی شامل گروه­های کنترل (فاقد تیمار)، شاهد مبتلا به کبد چرب (تیمار با امولسیون چربی)، و گروه­های تجربی تحت تیمار 6 هفته­ای با امولسیون چربی و به ترتیب تیمار 28 روزه با  75/0 میلی­لیتر بر کیلوگرم روغن کتان، 5 میلی­لیتر بر کیلوگرم روغن سیاه­دانه و ترکیب هر دو 75/0+5 میلی­لیتر بر کیلوگرم روغن­های کتان و سیاه دانه تقسیم شدند، استفاده گردید. در پایان پس از خون­گیری و جداسازی سرم سطح آنزیم­های آسپارتات آمینوترانسفراز (AST)، آلانین آمینوترانسفراز (ALT)، آلکالین فسفاتاز (ALP)، نیتروژن اوره خون (BUN)، کراتینین، پروتئین تام واینترلوکین 6 اندازه­گیری و آنالیز گردیدند. نتایج نشان داد که القای کبد چرب باعث افزایش معنادار میزان  اینترلوکین 6، پروتئین تام، نیتروژن اوره خون و ALP، ALT، AST و کراتینین نسبت به گروه کنترل می­گردد (01/0< p). روغن­های سیاه دانه و کتان به تنهایی و با هم باعث کاهش معنادار فاکتورهای فوق می­گردد (01/0< p). روغن­های سیاه­دانه، کتان و استفاده همزمان هر دو باعث کاهش فاکتورهای سرمی ناشی از التهاب و آسیب کبدی در اختلال کبد چرب می­شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Effects of Flaxseed and Nigella Sativa Oils on Liver Enzymes and Some of the Inflammatory Factors in Male Rats with non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mozhgan Rahimi
  • Seyed Ebrahim Hosseini
  • Mohammad Amin edalatmanesh
Department of Biology, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Siraz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Fatty liver is a common metabolic disorder affecting millions of people all over the world. Due to the side effects of most of the chemical drugs used to treat this disease, this study has been performed aiming to investigate the effect of flaxseed and N. sativa oils on serum levels of liver enzymes and some of the inflammatory factors in in male rats affected by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this experimental study, 40 mature male rats were randomly assigned to 5 groups (8 rats in each group) include the control group (receiving no treatment), fatty liver (treated by fat emulsion), and the experimenta groups under 6-weeks by fat emulsion, and 28-day treatments by 0.75 ml/kg of flaxseed oil, 5 ml/kg of N. sativa oil, and the combined treatmnet of 0.75+ 5 ml/kg of flaxseed and N. sativa oils, respectively. At the end, after blood sampling and separation of the surface serum of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), BUN (blood urea nitrogen), creatinine, total protein, and interleukin 6 were measured.  Data analysis was done by ANOVA and Tukey tests. The results showed that iduction of fatty liver caused significant increase of interleukin-6, total protein, blood urea nitrogen, ALP, ALT, AST enzymes, and creatinine compared to the control group (P˂0.01); while the use of flaxseed and N. Sativa oils alone and their combination caused a significant decrease in the level of the above mentioend (P˂0.01). factors The results showed that N. sativa and flaxseed oils and their combination can decrease the inflammatory serum factors and liver damage caused by fatty liver disorder.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Fatty liver
  • N. sativa and flaxseed oils
  • Interleukin 6
  • liver enzymes
1. Ahmad A., Husain A., Mujeeb M., Khan SA, Najmi A.K., Siddique NA., Damanhouri ZA., Anwar F., 2013. A review on therapeutic potential of Nigella sativa: a miracle herb. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, 3(5): 337-352.

2. Ali B., Blunden G. 2003. Pharmacological and toxicological properties of Nigella sativa. Phytotherapy Research, 17(4): 299-305.

3. Alzoubi KH., Khabour OF., Rashid BA., Damaj IM. 2012. Sleep and Chronobiology in Plasticity and Memory. Frontiers Research Topics, 8: 37-43.

4. Amini M., Fallah Huseini H., Mohtashami R., Sadeqhi Z.,  Ghamarchehreh M.A. 2011. Hypolipidem ic effects of Nigella sativa L. seeds oil in healthy volunteers: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Journal of Applied Research on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants, 10(40): 133-138.

5. Asadi-Samani M, Ashtary-Larky D. 2016. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa). Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 14(10): 732-745.

6. Assy N., Nassar F., Nasser G., Grosovski M. 2009. Olive oil consumption and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology, 15: 1809-1815.

7. Awadalla EA, 2012. Ameliorative effect of the crude oil of the Nigella sativa on oxidative stress induced in rat testes by cisplatin treatment. Biomedicine and Preventive Nutrition, 2(4): 265-268.

8. Badary OA, Taha RA., Gamal El-Din AM., Abdel-Wahab M.H. 2003. Thymoquinone is a potent superoxide anion scavenger. Drug and Chemical Toxicology, 26(2): 87-98.

9. Bano F., Wajeeh M., Baig N., Naz H., Akhtar A. 2009. Antiobesity, antihyperlipidemic and hypoglycemic effects of the aqueous extract of Nigella Sativa seeds (Kalongi). Molecular and Cell Biology,42(4): 136-140.

10. Bayrak O., Bavbek N., Karatas O.F., Bayrak R., Catal F., Cimentepe E., Akbas A., Yildirim E., Unal D., Akcay A. 2008. Nigella sativa protects against ischaemia/reperfusion injury in rat kidneys. Nephrology and Dialysis, 23(7): 2206-2212.

11. Benhaddou‐Andaloussi A., Martineau L., Vallerand D.,  Haddad,Y.,  AfsharA., Settaf A., Haddad P.S. 2010. Multiple molecular targets underlie the antidiabetic effect of Nigella sativa seed extract in skeletal muscle, adipocyte and liver cells Diabetes, Obesity and Metabolism, 12(2): 148-157.

12. Chakrabarty A., Emerson M.R., LeVine SM. 2003. Heme oxygenase-1 in SJL mice with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Multiple Sclerosis, 9(4): 372-381.

13. Dattner A.M. 2003. From medical herbalism to phytotherapy in dermatology: back to the future. Dermatology, 16(2): 106-113.

14.  Flachowsky G., Langbein T., Bohme H., Schneider A., Aulrich K., 1997. Effect of false E supplementation in pigs feeding on the fatty acid pattern, vitamin E concentration and oxidative stability of various tissues. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 78(1-5): 187-195.

15. Foster R.,Williamson CS., Lunn J. 2009 Culinary oils and their health effects. The British Journal of Nutrition, 34(1): 4-44.

16. Giovanni, M., Roberto, G., James, H., Tabibian M., Ekstedt S.K., Hamaguchi M. 2014. Association of Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease with Chronic    Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis, PLoS Medicine,11(7): e1001680

17. Hajhashemi V., Ghannadi A., Jafarabadi H. 2004. Black cumin seed essential oil,as a potent analgesic and antiimflammatory drug. Phytotherapy Research, 18(3): 195-199.

18. Hoseini HF., Darvishzadeh F., Heshmat R., Jafariazar Z., Raza M., Larijani B. 2009. The clinical investigation of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) schrad fruit in treatment of Type II diabetic patients: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Phytotherapy Research, 23(8): 1186 - 1189

19. Hosseini S.V., Rahnema M. 2015. Effects of feeding flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum) on brain edema and blood fat levels in the rat stroke model. Journal of Ilam University of Medical Sciences, 24(2): 38-46

20. Ibrahim R.M., Hamdan N.S., Mahmud R., Umar Imam M.,  MohdSaini S.,  Nizam Abd Rashid S. 2014. A randomized controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella sativa seeds powder in menopausal women. Journal of Translational Medicine, 12: 82.

21. Kasote D. 2013. Flaxseed phenolics as natural antioxidants. International Food Research Journal, 20 (1): 27- 34.

22. Kitts D.D., Yuan Y.V., Wijewickreme A.N., Thompso, L.U. 1999. Antioxidant activity of the flaxseed lignan secoisolariciresinol diglycoside and its mammalian lignan metabolites enterodiol and enterolactone. Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 202(1-2): 91100

23. Kooti W., Hasanzadeh-Noohi Z., Sharafi-Ahvazi N., Asadi-Samani M., Ashtary D. 2016. Phytochemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic uses of black seed (Nigella sativa). Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines, 14(10): 0732-0745.

24. Mahmoud, M., El-Abhar, H., Saleh, S. 2002. The effect of Nigella sativa oil against the liver damage induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in mice Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 79(1): 1-11.

25. Mohamed, A., Shoker, A., Bendjelloul, F., Mare, A., Alzrigh, M., Benghuzzi, H. 2003. Improvement of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) by thymoquinone; an oxidative stress inhibitor. Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation, 39: 440-445.

 26. Makni M., Fetoui H., Gargouri N.K., Garoui E.M., Jaber H., Makni J. 2016. Hypolipidemic and hepatoprotective effects of flax and pumpkin seed mixture rich in x-3 and x-6 fatty acids in hypercholesterol emic rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 46(12): 3714-3720.

27.  Newairy A.S., Abdou H.M. 2009. Protective role of flax lignans against lead acetate induced oxidative damage and hyperlipidemia in rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 47(4):813-818.

28. Oomah B.D., Mazza G. 2000. Bioactive components of flaxseed: Occurrence and health benefits. In: Phytochemicals in flaxseed. Champaign:AOCS Press, p: 105-112.

29. Oomah B.D., Sitter L. 2009. Characteris tics of flaxseed hull oil. Food Chemical, 114(2): 623-628.

30. Özkal S.G. 2009. Response surface analysis and modeling of flaxseed oil yield in supercritical carbon dioxide. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 86(11): 1129-1135.

31. Papas A.M. 1998. Antioxidant status, diet, nutrition, and health. Boca Raton: CRC Press. P: 65-119.

32. Rahimi M., Hosseini S.E., Edalatmanesh M.A. 2020. Comparison of almond and buckwheat oils on blood biochemical and liver function in rats with non-alcoholic fatty liver. Medical Science, 24(103): 1418-1426.

33. Sharma K. 2010. Mechanisms linking obesity, chronic kidney disease, and fatty liver disease: the roles of fetuin-A, adiponectin, and AMPK. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 21(3): 406-412.

34. Siger A., Nogala‐Kalucka M., Lampart‐Szczapa E. 2008. The content and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds in cold‐pressed plant oils. Journal of Food Lipids. 15 (2): 137-149.

35. Singh K.K., Mridula D., Rehal J., Barnwal P. 2011. Flaxseed: A potential source of food, feed and fiber. Critical Reviews in food Science and Nutrition, 51(3): 210-222.

36. Singh S., Das S., Singh G. 2014. Composition, in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oil and oleoresins obtained from black cumin seeds (Nigella sativa L.). Biomedical Research International, 2014(2): 918209

37. Struijs K., Vincken J.P., Verhoef R., Voragen A.G., Gruppen H. 2008. Hydroxy cinnamic acids are ester-linked directly to glucosyl moieties within the lignan macromolecule from flaxseed hulls. Phytochemistry, 69(5): 1250-1260.

38. Targher G., Bertolini L., Padovani R., Rodella S., Zoppini G., Pichiri I.. 2010.  Prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and its association with cardiovascular disease in patients with type 1 diabetes. Journal of Hepatology, 53(4): 713-718.

39. Thomas G., Sehgal AR., Kashyap SR., Srinivas TR., Kirwan J.P. 2011. Metabolic syndrome and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 6(10): 2364–2373.

40. Umar S., Zargan J., Umar K., Katiyar CK., Khan H.A. 2012. Modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokine response by thymoquinone in the collagen induced arthritis in Wistar rats. Chemico-biological Interactions, 197(1): 40-46.

41.Vasilios G., Theodore, K., Alexandrides, H., Bilianou, E. 2017. The use of statins alone, or in combination with pioglitazone and other drugs, for the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and related cardiovascular risk. an expert panel statement. Metabolism, 71(1): 17-32

42. Williams D.S., Verghese M., Walker L.T., Boateng J., Shackelford L.A., Guyton, M. 2008. Chemopreventive effects of flax seed oil and flax seed meal on azoxymethane-induced colon tumors in fisher 344 male rats. International Journal of Cancer Research and Therapy, 4(2):28-40.

43. Zohary D., Hopf M., Weiss E. 2000.  Domestication of plants in the old world. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; p: 16.