تاثیر یک وهله فعالیت رکاب زدن همراه و بدون محدودیت جریان خون بر غلظت‌های سرمی تستوسترون، کورتیزول و فاکتور نکروز توموری آلفا در مردان سالم

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه آزاد واحد کرج، کرج، ایران

چکیده

هدف از پژوهش حاضر تعیین تاثیر یک وهله فعالیت رکاب زدن همراه و بدون محدودیت جریان خون بر غلظت­های سرمی هورمون تستوسترون، کورتیزول و فاکتور نکروز توموری آلفا در مردان سالم بود. بدین منظور 16 نفر از اعضای باشگاه آر 8 نیاوران انتخاب شدند. آزمودنی‌ها بر اساس توان به دو گروه رکاب زدن همراه با انسداد عروق پا و رکاب زدن بدون انسداد تقسیم شدند. جلسه تمرین شامل 3 وهله سه دقیقه­ای رکاب زدن با شدت 50 درصد Wmax بود که بین هر وهله 30-45 ثانیه استراحت وجود داشت. گروه بدون انسداد نیز همین پروتکل را انجام داد با این تفاوت که در این گروه هیچ محدودیت جریان خونی وجود نداشت. خونگیری 24 ساعت قبل از شروع دوره تمرینی و 24 ساعت بعد از آخرین جلسه تمرینی صورت گرفت. برای تجزیه و تحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون T مستقل و T  وابسته در سطح معناداری (05/0 p < /em> <) استفاده شد. نتایج نشان داد تغییرات درون گروهی تستوسترون و TNF-α در گروه انسداد و گروه بدون انسداد تغییرات معناداری را نشان نداد (05/0p ≥ ). همچنین تغییرات بین گروهی نشان دهنده عدم تفاوت بین دو گروه بود (05/0p < /em> ≥ ). تغییرات درون گروهی کورتیزول در گروه انسداد (05/0p < /em> ≤ ) بطور معناداری افزایش و در بدون انسداد (05/0p ≥ ) تغییر معناداری نشان نداد. تغییرات بین گروهی نشان­دهنده تفاوت بین دو گروه بود (05/0p < /em> ≤ ). پژوهش حاضر نشان داد که فعالیت انسدادی به نسبت همان فعالیت بدون انسداد در پاسخ بر سطح سرمی تستوسترون و TNF-α در مردان سالم تاثیر معناداری نداشته است ولی این تفاوت در میزان کورتیزول معنادار بود. در نتیجه افرادی که تمایلی به انجام تمرینات شدید و طولانی ندارند می­توانند جهت افزایش تستوسترون و کاهش عوامل التهابی با استفاده از تمرین محدودیت جریان خون و با یک شدت کمتر، به این امر نائل شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Effects of a Single bout of Cycling Exercise with and without Blood Flow Restriction on Serum Concentrations of Testosterone, Cortisol and Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Healthy Men

نویسندگان [English]

  • Eidi Alijani
  • Mahsa Mohsen Zadeh
  • Fatemeh Aghasi
Department of Physical Education and Sports Science, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a single bout of cycling exercise with and without blood flow restriction on serum concentrations of testosterone, cortisol and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in healthy men. For this purpose, 16 members of R8 Niavaran Gym were selected. Subjects were divided into two groups according to their power: cycling with foot arteries blockage and cycling without foot arteries blockage. The training session consisted of 3×3-minutes cycling with 50% Wmax intensity, with a rest interval of 30-45 seconds. The group without arteries blockage performed the same protocol, except that there were no blood flow restrictions. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before the start of the training period and 24 hours after the last training session. Data were analyzed using independent t-test and dependent t-test at the significant level of P <0.05. The obtained results showed that within-group changes in testosterone and TNF-α in the arteries blockage group and without arteries blockage group showed no significant changes (P≥0.05). Also, between-group changes showed no difference between the two groups (P≥0.05). the within-group changes of cortisol significantly increased in the arteries blockage group (P≤0.05) and did not show a significant change in the group without arteries blockage (P≥0.05). Between-group changes showed a difference between the two groups (P≤0.05). The present study showed that blood flow restriction activity had no significant effect on serum testosterone and TNF-α levels in healthy men in relation to the same activity without blood flow restriction, but this difference was significant in cortisol level. As a result, people who are reluctant to do intense and long-term exercise can increase testosterone and reduce inflammatory factors using a less intense restricted blood flow exercise.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Testosterone hormone
  • Cortisol
  • Restriction exercise
  • Treadmill activity
  • TNF-α
 

  1. Abe T., Loenneke J.P., Fahs C.A., Rossow L.M., Thiebaud R.S., Bemben M.G. 2012. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow–restricted limbs and non‐restricted muscles: a brief review. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 32(4): 247-252.
  2. Adamopoulos S., Parissis J., Karatzas D., Kroupis C., Georgiadis M., Karavolias G., ... Kremastinos D.T. 2002. Physical training modulates proinflammatory cytokines and the soluble Fas/soluble Fasligand system in patients with chronic heart failure. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 39(4): 653-663
  3. Ahtiainen J.P., Pakarinen A., Kraemer W.J., Häkkinen K. 2003. Acute hormonal and neuromuscular responses and recovery to forced vs. maximum repetitions multiple resistance exercises. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 24(6): 410-418.
  4. Coelho F.M., Reis H.J., Nicolato R., Romano-Silva M.A., Teixeira M.M., Bauer M.E., Teixeira A.L.. 2008. Increased serum levels of inflammatory markers in chronic institutionalized patients with schizophrenia. Neuroimmunomodulation, 15(2): 140-144.
  5. Crewther B., Cronin J., Keogh J. 2005. Possible stimuli for strength and power adaptation. Sports Medicine, 35(11): 967-989.
  6. Durand R.J., V.D. Castracane, D.B. Hollander, J.L. Tryniecki, Marcas M. Bamman, S.A.R.A.H.O Neal, E.P. Hebert, R.R. Kraemer. 2003. Hormonal responses from concentric and eccentric muscle contractions. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(6): 937-943.
  7. Espersen G.T., Elbaek A., Ernst E., Toft E., Kaalund S., Jersild C., Grunnet N. 1990. Effect of physical exercise on cytokines and lymphocyte subpopulations in human peripheral blood. APMIS (Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica), 98(1-6): 395-400.
  8. Farbiak L. 2013. Effects of lower-and higher-volume resistance exercise on serum total and free testosterone, s. m. t. a. d. c., and skeletal muscle androgen receptor mRNA expression and protein content. PhD Thesis, Baylor University.
  9. Farrell P.A., Joyner M.J., Caiozzo V. 2011. ACSM's advanced exercise physiology. Wolters Kluwer Health Adis (ESP), 719 pp.
  10. Fry A., Lohnes C. 2010. Acute testosterone and cortisol responses to high power resistance exercise. Human Physiology, 36(4): 457-461.
  11. Goldhammer E., Tanchilevitch A., Maor I., Beniamini Y., Rosenschein U., Sagiv M. 2005. Exercise training modulates cytokines activity in coronary heart disease patients. International Journal of Cardiology, 100(1), 93-99.
  12. Greiwe J.S., Cheng B.O., Rubin D.C., Yarasheski K.E., Semenkovich C.F. 2001. Resistance exercise decreases skeletal muscle tumor necrosis factor α in frail elderly humans. The FASEB Journal, 15(2): 475-482.
  13. Izquierdo M., Hakkinen, K., Ibanez, J., Garrues M., Anton A., Zuniga A., Larrion J.L., Gorostiaga E.M. 2001. Effects of strength training on muscle power and serum hormones in middle-aged and older men. Journal of Applied Physiology, 90(4): 1497-1507.
  14. Kang S.S., Keasey M.P., Arnold S.A., Reid R., Geralds J., Hagg T. 2013. Endogenous CNTF mediates stroke-induced adult CNS neurogenesis in mice." Neurobiology of Diseases, 49: 68-78.
  15. Karabulut M., Sherk V.D., Bemben D.A., Bemben M.G. 2013. Inflammation marker, damage marker and anabolic hormone responses to resistance training with vascular restriction in older males. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, 33(5): 393-399.
  16. Rahmaty S., Dehghan P., Khoramipour K., Saboory M. 2015. The Effect of Listening to Brain Waves' Relaxing and Exciting Music during Intense Endurance Training on Blood Cortisol Levels of Adult Men. American Journal of Sports Science and Medicine, 3(4): 77-81.
  17. Kraemer W.J., Ratamess N.A. 2005. Hormonal responses and adaptations to Resistance exercise and training. Sports Medicine, 35(4): 339-361.
  18. Kraemer W.J, M.L., Gordon SE, Harman E, Dziados JE, Mello R, et al. 1990. Hormonal and growth factor responses to heavy resistance exercise protocols. American Physiological Society, 60: 89-95.
  19. Lam S.Y., Liu Y., Ng K.M., Lau C.F., Liong E.C., Tipoe G.L., Fung M.L. 2012. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces local inflammation of the rat carotid body via functional upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways. Histochem Cell Biol, 137(3): 303-317.
  20. Lam S.Y., L.Y., Ng K.M., Lau C.F., Liong E.C., Tipoe G.L,. et.al. 2012. Chronic intermittent hypoxia induces local inflammation of the rat carotid body via functional upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine pathways. Histochemistry and cell biology, 137(3): 303-317.
  21. Liu L.S., Spelleken M., Röhrig K., Hauner H., Eckel J. 1998. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha acutely inhibits insulin signaling in human adipocytes: implication of the p80 tumor necrosis factor receptor. Diabetes, 47(4), 515-522.
  22. Loenneke J.P., Wilson G.J., Wilson J.M. 2010. A mechanistic approach to blood flow occlusion. International Journalof Sports Medicine, 31: 1-4.
  23. Pedersen B.K., Steensberg A., Fischer, C., Keller C., Ostrowski K., Schjerling P., 2001. Exercise and cytokines with particular focus on muscle derived IL-6. Exercise Immunology Review, 7: 18-31.
  24. Khoramipour K., Dehghan P., Saboory M., Shahed A., Basereh A. 2016. Acute effects of submaximal cycling activity with blood flow restriction on superoxide dismutase and plasma glutathione peroxidase enzymes in healthy men: a pilot study. MED-Sport, 69: 325-340.
  25. Nakajima T., Kurano M., Iida H., Takano H., Oonuma H., Morita T., Meguro K., Sato Y., Nagata T. 2006. Use and safety of KAATSU training: results of a national survey. International Journal of KAATSU Training Research, 2(1): 5-13.
  26. Nemet D., Oh. Y., Kim HS, Hill M, Cooper D.M. 2002. Effect of intense exercise on inflammatory cytokines and growth mediators in adolescent boys. Pediatrics, 110(4): 681-689.
  27. Pilz-Burstein R, Ashkenazi. Y., Yaakobovitz Y, Cohen Y, Zigel L, Nemet D, Shamash N, Eliakim A. 2010. Hormonal response to Taekwondo fighting Simulation in elite adolescent athletes. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 110(6): 1283-1290.
  28. Pullinen T, Mero A., Huttunen P., Pakarinen A., Komi P.V. 2011. Resistance exercise-induced hormonal response under the influence of delayed onset muscle soreness in men and boys. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, 21(6): e184–e194.
  29. Reeves G.V., Kraemer R., Hollander D.B., Clavier J., Thomas C., Francois M., Castracane V.D. 2006. Comparison of hormone responses following light resistance exercise with partial vascular occlusion and moderately difficult resistance exercise without occlusion. Journal of Applied Physiology, 101(6): 1616-1622.
  30. Schumann M., Walker S., Izquierdo M., Newton R.U., Kraemer W.J., Hakkinen K. 2014. The order effect of combined endurance and strength loadings on force and hormone responses: effects of prolonged training. Euroean Journalof Applied Physiology, 114: 867-880.
  31. Scott B.R., Loenneke J.P., Slattery K.M., Dascombe B.J. 2015. Exercise with blood flow restriction: an updated evidence-based approach for enhanced muscular development. Sports Medicine, 45(3): 313-325.
  32. Sedghi B., Kahrizi S., Zakeri H., Omidfar K., Rahmani M. 2009. Evaluation of acute hormonal responses to concentric, eccentric and concentriceccentric muscle actions in healthy young men. Physiology and Pharmacology, 13(2): 216-228.
  33. Smith LL, Anwar A., Fragen M, Rananto C., Johnson R., Holbert D. 2000. Cytokines and cell adhesion molecules associated with high-intensity eccentric exercise. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 82(1-2): 61-67.
  34. Spiering B.A., Kraemer W.J., Vingren, J.L., Ratamess N.A., Anderson J.M., Armstrong L.E., Nindl B.C., Volek J.S., Häkkinen K., Maresh C.M., 2009. Elevated endogenous testosterone concentrations potentiate muscle androgen receptor responses to resistance exercise. The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 114(3-5): 195-199.
  35. Straczkowski M., Kowalska I., Dzienis-Straczkowska S., Stepién A., Skibińska E., Szelachowska M., Kinalska I. 2001. Changes in tumor necrosis factor-alpha system and insulin sensitivity during an exercise training program in obese women with normal and impaired glucose tolerance. European Journal of Endocrinology, 145(3): 273-280.
  36. Taipale R.S., Hakkinen K. 2013. Acute hormonal and force responses to combined strength and endurance loadings in men and women: the order effect. PloS One, 8(2): e55051.
  37. Toft A.D., Jensen L.B., Bruunsgaard H., Ibfelt T., Halkjær-Kristensen J., Febbraio M., Pedersen B.K. 2002. Cytokine response to eccentric exercise in young and elderly humans. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 283(1): C289-C295.
  38. Tsukui S., Kanda T., Nara M., Nishino M., Kondo T., Kobayashi I. 2000. Moderate-intensity regular exercise decreases serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha and HbA1c levels in healthy women. International Journal of Obesityand Related Metabolic Disorders, 24(9): 1207-1211.
  39. Vingren J., Kraemer W.J., Ratamess N.A., Anderson J.M., Volek J.S., Maresh, C.M. 2010. Testosterone physiology in resistance exercise and training. Sports Medicine, 40(12): 1037-1053.