تاثیر مکمل دهی فرنجیمشک متعاقب یک جلسه فعالیت شبیه سازی شده کاراته بر برخی شاخص های آنتی اکسیدانی و آسیب عضلانی پلاسمایی منتخب در کاراته کاران نخبه

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه فیزیولوژی ورزشی، پژوهشگاه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، تهران، ایران

2 گروه تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، تهران، ایران

چکیده

ورزش کاراته با توجه به شدت و نوع فعالیت آن از جمله فعالیت­های شدید و پر برخورد در نظر گرفته می­شود. در این نوع فعالیت­ها آسیب­های متعددی به بدن وارد شده و باعث برهم زدن ظرفیت آنتی­اکسیدانی بدن می­شود. هدف از پژوهش حاضر بررسی پاسخ نشانگرهای آسیب عضلانی، استرس اکسایشی و آنزیم­های آنتی­اکسیدانی پلاسمایی در کاراته کاران نخبه به  فعالیت شبیه سازی شده کاراته و مکمل­دهی گیاه فرنجیمشک بود. 24 نفر کاراته کار نخبه واجد شرایط به طور تصادفی در دو گروه فعالیت-دارونما (12n=) و فعالیت فرنجیمشک (12n=) تقسیم شدند. فعالیت در نظر گرفته شده بر اساس مسابقات جهانی و اروپایی کاراته بود. گروه­های پژوهش در ابتدا در حال استراحت و نشسته خون داده و سپس فعالیت مورد نظر را انجام دادند. خون گیری دوم بلافاصله بعد از فعالیت انجام شد. بلافاصله بعد از خونگیری دوم به آزمودنی­های گروه­های نامبرده شده به ترتیب 500 میلی گرم کپسول دارونما و فرنجیمشک داده شد. خونگیری سوم یک ساعت و خونگیری چهارم دو ساعت بعد از خوردن کپسول مکمل­ها انجام داده شد. سپس از خون­ها پلاسما جدا شده و شاخص­های CK، LDH، MDA، GPx، TAC و  SOD اندازه گیری شد. بلافاصله بعد از فعالیت شبیه­سازی شده کاراته شاخص­های آسیب عضلانی و استرس اکسایشی افزایش معنی­داری داشت (001/0p < /em> <) و در دوره ریکاوری کاهش خواهند داشت که در گروه­ه مصرف­کننده مکمل بیشتر بود (05/0p < /em> < ). همچنین شاخص­های آنتی­اکسیدانی بعد از فعالیت افزایش معنی دار پیدا کرد و در گروه­های مصرف­کننده مکمل این افزایش در دوره ریکاوری همچنان در سطح بالاتری بود (05/0p < /em> <). نتایج نشان داد که مکمل­دهی فرنجیمشک در دوره ریکاوری فعالیت تمرینات شبیه­ساز کاراته سبب افزایش شاخص­های آنتی­اکسیدانی و کاهش شاخص­های آسیب عضلانی و اکسایشی شد. بنابراین این گیاه می­تواند به عنوان یک مکمل به منظور کاهش آسیب، استرس و خستگی برای کاراته­کاران پیشنهاد شوند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Skullcap Supplementation after a Session of Simulated Karate Activity on Some Antioxidant Indicators, Oxidative Stress and Selected Muscle Damage in Elite Karate Athletes

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mohammad Reza Fazli 1
  • Reza Gharakhanlou 2
  • Mohammad Shariatzadeh Joneydi 1
1 Department of Exercise Physiology, Sport Sciences Research Institute, Iran
2 Department of Exercise Science, Faculty of Humanities, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

Karate is considered as one of the most intense and challenging exercise due to its intensity and types of activities. In these activities, the body is inflicted by the number of injuries and its antioxidant capacity is disturbed. Therefore, the present study was aimed at assessing the responses of muscle damage markers, oxidative stress and plasma antioxidant enzymes to the simulated karate activities and supplementation of skullcap plant in the elite karate athletes. Twenty-four eligible elite karate athletes were randomly assigned to two groups, consisting of placebo-activity group (n=12) and skullcap-activity group (n=12). The considered activities were based on the World and European Karate Championships programs. First, blood samples were taken from research groups at the rest and then desired activities were performed by athletes. Next, the second blood sampling was taken, immediately after the activity and after that, the subjects in placebo and skullcap groups received 500 mg of placebo and skullcap capsules, respectively. The third blood samples were taken one hour after that and the fourth blood sampling was two hours after taking the supplement. Finally, plasma was removed from the blood and CK, LDH, MDA, GPx, TAC, and SOD indicators were measured.Results showed that the indicators of muscle damage and oxidative stress significantly increased (p < /em> < 0.001) immediately after simulated karate activates and decreased during the recovery period as well, while these changes were higher in supplement group (p < /em> < 0.05). Furthermore, antioxidant indicators have significantly increased after the activities, and this increase was at a higher level (p < /em> < 0.05) throughout the recovery period in the supplement group. The results of the present study showed that skullcap supplementation increased antioxidant indicators in the recovery period and decreased muscle and oxidative damage factors. Therefore, this plant can be recommended as a supplement to reduce damages, stress, and fatigue for karate athletes.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Skullcap
  • Karate
  • Antioxidant Indicators
  • Oxidative stress
  • Selected Muscle Damage
  • Elite Karate Athletes
1. König D., Schumacher Y.O., Heinrich L., Schmid A., Berg A., Dickhuth H.H. 2003. Myocardial stress after competitive exercise in professional road cyclists. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35(10): 1679-1683.

2. Moreira A., Franchini .E, de Freitas C.G., de Arruda A.F.S., de Moura N.R., Costa E.C., 2012. Salivary cortisol and immunoglobulin A responses to simulated and official Jiu-Jitsu matches. The Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research,  26(8): 2185-2191.

3. Sarhadi M., Sanavi S., Afshar R. 2011. Hematuria following Karate (Kumite) competitions in females. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, 22(6): 1253.

4. Clarkson P.M., Hubal M.J. 2002. Exercise-induced muscle damage in humans. American Journal of Pphysical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 81(11): S52-S69.

5. Sinert R., Kohl L., Rainone T., Scalea T. 1994. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. Annals of Emergency Medicine, 23(6): 1301-1306.

6. Bloomer R.J., Goldfarb A.H. 2004. Anaerobic exercise and oxidative stress: a review. Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, 29(3): 245-63.

7. Urso M.L., Clarkson P.M. 2003. Oxidative stress, exercise, and antioxidant supplementation. Toxicology, 189(1-2): 41-54.

8. Farzanegi P., Mousavi M., Ghanbari-Niaki A. 2013. Effect of Pistacia atlantica extract on glutathione peroxidase tissue levels and total oxidative capacity of liver and plasma lipid profile of rats. Journal of Zanjan  University of Medical Sciences, 15(11): 59-63.

9. Park S.Y., Kwak Y.S. 2016. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 12(2): 113.

10. Belviranlı M., Gökbel H. 2006. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress and antioxidant changes. European Journal of Genetics Medicine,  3(3): 126-131.

11. Powers S.K., Jackson M.J. 2008. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: cellular mechanisms and impact on muscle force production. Physiological Reviews, 88(4): 1243-1276.

12. Clarkson P.M., Kearns A.K., Rouzier P., Rubin R., Thompson P.D. 2006. Serum creatine kinase levels and renal function measures in exertional muscle damage. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 38(4): 623.

13. Shavandi N., Afshar R., Samei A., Sheikhhoseini R. 2012. Effect of one-session vigorous training on muscular damage and renal function markers in elite karate athletes..

14. Salahshoor T., Farzanegi P., Habibian M. 2014. Synergistic effects of omega 3 supplementation and exercise on markers of liver (ALP, AST, and ALT) and muscle (LDH and CK) damage in male karate athletes. Journal of Appied Science and Agriculture, 9: 245-249.

15. Kudoh H, Yaegaki M, Takahashi I, Umeda T, Sawada K, Okubo N, 2013. The relationship between muscle damage and reactive oxygen species production capability after judo exercise. Hirosaki Medical Journal, 64(2):176-185.

16. Williams M.H. 2004. FACSM. Dietary Supplements and Sports Performance: Introduction and Vitamins. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 1(2): 1-6.

17. Mathew S., Abraham T.E. 2006. In vitro antioxidant activity and scavenging effects of Cinnamomum verum leaf extract assayed by different methodologies. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 44(2): 198-206.

18. Miraj S., Rafieian-Kopaei M., Kiani S. 2017.  Melissa officinalis L: A review study with an antioxidant prospective. Journal of Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 22(3): 385-394.

19. Dastmalchi K., Dorman H.D., Oinonen P.P., Darwis Y., Laakso I., Hiltunen R. 2008. Chemical composition and in vitro antioxidative activity of a lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) extract. LWT-Food Science and Technology, 41(3): 391-400.

20. Varmazyar M., Azarbayjani M. 2014. The Effect of Saffron Supplementation of Antioxidant Enzymes Activities During a Session Eccentric Exercise in Active Males. Journal of Medicinal Plants, 2(50): 54-63.

21. Ajam M., Afzalpour M.I., Abtahi H., Saghebjou M. 2015. The Effect of Saffron Extract Consumption on the Serum Paraoxonase-1 (PON1) Enzyme Activity and C - Reactive Protein (CRP) in Healthy Young Women Following a Session of Acute Resistance Training. Sport Physiology and Management Investigations, 7(1): 97-111.

22. Tayebi S.M., Saeidi A., Fashi M., Pouya S., Khosravi A., Shirvani H., 2019. Plasma retinol-binding protein-4 and tumor necrosis factor-α are reduced in postmenopausal women after combination of different intensities of circuit resistance training and Zataria supplementation. Sport Sciences for Health, 15(3): 551-558.

23. Ghannadi A, Mehregan I. 2003. Essential oil of one of the Iranian skullcaps. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung, 58(5-6): 316-318.

24. Güler M., Ramazanoglu N. 2018. Evaluation of Physiological Performance Parameters of Elite Karate-Kumite Athletes by the Simulated Karate Performance Test. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 6(10): 2238-2243.

25. Brown M.J. 2005. Fitness and its affects on the military. ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA.

26. Baghaee B., Tartibian B., Baradaran B. 2013. The effect of gender differences on relationship between total antioxidant status and inflammatory enzyme fallowing to intensive aerobic exercise in young athletes individual. Journal of Szeval University of Medical Science, 19(4): 345-353.

27. Gonzalez A.M., Hoffman J.R.., Jajtner AR., Townsend J.R., Boone C.H., Beyer K.S., 2015. Protein supplementation does not alter intramuscular anabolic signaling or endocrine response after resistance exercise in trained men. Nutrition Research, 35(11): 990-1000.

28. Callegari G.A., Novaes J.S., Neto G.R., Dias I., Garrido N.D., Dani C. 2017. Creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase responses after different resistance and aerobic exercise protocols. Journal of human Kinetics, 58(1): 65-72.

29. Amirsasan R., Nikookheslat S., Sari-Sarraf V., Kaveh B., Letafatkar A. 2012. The effect of two dosage of BCAA supplementation on wrestlers’ serum indexes on cellular injury. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 13(8): 22-28.

30. Jahangard sardrud .A, Hamedi nia M.R., Hosseini-Kakhk S.A.R., Jafari A., Salehzadeh K. 2013. Effect of Short-Term Garlic Extract Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Indices During Rest and Induced-Exercise Exhaustion in Male Soccer Players. Iranian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, 15(1): 78-85.

31. Lobo V., Patil A., Phatak A., Chandra N. 2010. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: Impact on human health. Pharmacognosy reviews, 4(8):118.

32. Alessio HM. 1993. Exercise-induced oxidative stress. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25(2): 218-224.

33. Parise G., Phillips S.M., Kaczor J.J., Tarnopolsky M.A. 2005. Antioxidant enzyme activity is up-regulated after unilateral resistance exercise training in older adults. Free Radical Biology and Medicine, 39(2): 289-295.

34. Sofowora A., Ogunbodede E., Onayade A. 2013. The role and place of medicinal plants in the strategies for disease prevention. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 10(5): 210-229.

35. Zarei A., Changizi Ashtiyani S., Taheri S., Hossaini N. 2015. A Brief Overview of the Effects of Melissa officinalis L. Extract on the Function of Various Body Organs. Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, 2015: 17.

36. Wojdyło A., Oszmiański J., Czemerys R. 2007. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in 32 selected herbs. Food Chemistry, 105(3): 940-949.

37. Pereira R.P., Fachinetto R., de Souza Prestes A., Puntel R.L., Da Silva G.N.S., Heinzmann B.M., 2009. Antioxidant effects of different extracts from Melissa officinalis, Matricaria recutita and Cymbopogon citratus. Neurochemical Research, 34(5): 973-983.

38. Martins E.N., Pessano N.T., Leal L., Roos D.H., Folmer V., Puntel G.O., 2012. Protective effect of Melissa officinalis aqueous extract against Mn-induced oxidative stress in chronically exposed mice. Brain Research Bulletin, 87(1):74-79.

39. Khayyal M.T., El-Ghazaly M.A., Kenawy S.A., Seif-El-Nasr M., Mahran L.G., Kafafi Y.A., 2001. Antiulcerogenic effect of some gastrointestinally acting plant extracts and their combination. Arzneimittelforschung, 51(07): 545-553.

40. Amaral J.S., Seabra R.M., Andrade P.B., Valentao P., Pereira J.A., Ferreres F. 2004. Phenolic profile in the quality control of walnut (Juglans regia L.) leaves. Food Chemistry, 88(3):373-379.

41. Chu Y.F., Sun J., Wu X., Liu R.H. 2002. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of common vegetables. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(23): 6910-6916.

42. Kon M, Kimura F., Akimoto T., Tanabe K., Murase Y., Ikemune S., 2007. Effect of Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise-induced muscular injury of rats. Exercise Immunology Review, 13(13): 76-88.

43. Manna P., Jain S. 2015. Vitamin D (VD) prevents oxidative stress via regulating NOX4/Nrf2/Trx signaling cascade and upregulates SIRT1-mediated AMPK/IRS1/ GLUT4 pathway and glucose uptake in high glucose treated 3T3L1 adipocytes. The FASEB Journal, 29(1): 253.1.

44. Gopinath K., Sudhandiran G. 2012. Naringin modulates oxidative stress and inflammation in 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurodegeneration through the activation of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 signalling pathway. Neuroscience, 227:134-143.

45. Nijveldt R.J., Van Nood E., Van Hoorn D.E., Boelens P.G., Van Norren K., Van Leeuwen P.A. 2001. Flavonoids: a review of probable mechanisms of action and potential applications. The American journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74(4): 418-425.

46. Petersen E.W., Ostrowski K., Ibfelt T., Richelle M., Offord E., Halkjær-Kristensen J., 2001. Effect of vitamin supplementation on cytokine response and on muscle damage after strenuous exercise. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology, 280(6): C1570-C1575.