مقایسه کارآیی جمعیت میکروبی شکمبه و مدفوع گوسفند در برآورد ارزش غذایی دانه‌های ذرت و سورگوم با استفاده از روش تولید گاز آزمایشگاهی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه علوم دامی، واحد شبستر، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، شبستر، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش بررسی کارآیی تخمیر میکروارگانیسم‌های مدفوع در مقایسه با میکروارگانیسم‌های شیرابه شکمبه برای برآورد ارزش غذایی دانه­های ذرت و سورگوم در نشخوارکنندگان با روش تولید گاز آزمایشگاهی است. برای انجام آزمایش تولید گاز با استفاده از دو روش شیرابه شکمبه و سوسپانسیون مدفوع؛ لیکور شکمبه و سوسپانسیون مدفوع از سه رأس گوسفند فیستوله‌‌شده توده قزل اخذ شد. نتایج این تحقیق نشان داد که در مواد خوراکی مورد آزمایش، تفاوت معنی‌داری از نظر تولید گاز در زمان‌های مختلف انکوباسیون بین دو روش یاد شده وجود نداشت. از نظر حجم گاز حاصل از بخش قابل تخمیر (A) برای دانه ذرت بین روش‌های مورد آزمایش اختلاف معنی‌داری مشاهده نشد، اما مقدار این فراسنجه در دانه سورگوم با روش سوسپانسیون مدفوع به طور معنی‌داری بیشتر از روش شیرابه شکمبه بود (05/0p <). مقادیر انرژی قابل متابولیسم، انرژی خالص شیردهی، قابلیت هضم ماده آلی و اسیدهای چرب زنجیر کوتاه برآورد شده مواد خوراکی مورد آزمایش از روی مقدار تولید گاز با استفاده از شیرابه شکمبه و سوسپانسیون مدفوع تفاوت معنی‌داری با هم نداشتند. مقدار گاز تولیدی در روش شیرابه شکمبه از روی مقدار گاز تولیدی با روش سوسپانسیون مدفوع برای دانه سورگوم و دانه ذرت با استفاده از معادلات رگرسیونی حاصل از نتایج این تحقیق به ترتیب (6353/1-X  8929/0=Ysorghum و 4097/3- X 9657/0=Ycorn) قابل برآورد است. با توجه به نتایج پژوهش به نظر می‌رسد سوسپانسیون مدفوع، جایگزین مناسبی برای شیرابه شکمبه در روش تولید گاز آزمایشگاهی جهت ارزشیابی مواد خوراکی نشخوارکنندگان می‌باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of the Efficiency of Ruminal and Faecal Microbial Population from Sheep to Estimate the Nutritional Value of Corn and Sorghum Grains Using In Vitro Gas Production Technique

نویسندگان [English]

  • Abolfazl Aghajanzadeh-Golshani
  • Naser Maheri-Sis
  • Ramin Salamat Doust-Nobar
  • Yahya Ebrahimnezhad
  • Abolfazl Ghorbani
Department of Animal Science, Shabestar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shabestar, Iran
چکیده [English]

This study aimed to investigate the fermentation efficiency of faecal microorganisms in comparison with rumen microorganisms to estimate the nutritional value of corn and sorghum grains in ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. To perform in vitro gas production technique with rumen liquor and faecal suspension, rumen fluid and fresh faeces were collected from three fistulated Gezel rams. The results of this study showed that there are no significant differences due to in vitro gas production between the two methods at different incubation times in experimental feedstuffs. There was no significant difference between two methods in terms of the amount of gas production from fermentable fraction (A) for corn grain, while the amount of this parameter by fecal suspension was significantly higher than that of rumen liquor in sorghum grain (P<0.05). Estimated metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL), organic matter digestibility (OMD), and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) contents of experimental grains with rumen fluid and faecal suspension showed no significant differences.The amount of gas produced with rumen liquor can be successfully estimated from faeces suspension using the obtained equations Ysorghum=0.8929 X -1.6353 for the sorghum grain and Ycorn=0.9657X-3.4097 for corn grain. According to the results of the study, it seems that the animal faeces suspension has the potential to replace rumen liquor in the in vitro gas production technique for ruminants feed evaluation.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Rumen liquor
  • Faeces suspension
  • Fermentation
  • metabolizable energy
  • in vitro gas production
  1. Abas I., Ozpinar H., Kutay H.C., Kahraman R. 2005. Determination of the metabolizable energy (ME) and net energy lactation (NEL) contents of some feeds in the marmara region by in vitro gas technique. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29: 751-757.
  2. Adesogan A.T. 2002. What are feeds worth? A critical evaluation of selected nutritive value methods. In: Proceedings 13th Annual Florida Ruminant Nutrition Symposium, pp: 33-47.
  3. Aghajanzadeh-Golshani A., Maheri-Sis N., SalamatDoust-Nobar R., Ebrahimnezhad Y., Ghorban A. 2015. Developing a modified in vitro gas production technique to replace the nylon bag method of evaluating protein degradation of alfalfa hay in ruminants. Iranian Journal of Applied Animal Science, 5(2):339-345.
  4. Aghajanzadeh-Golshani A., Maheri-Sis N., SalamatDoust-Nobar R., Ebrahimnezhad Y., Ghorban A. 2020. Estimating nutritional value of wheat and barley grains by in vitro gas production technique using rumen and faeces liquor of Gezel rams. Journal of Animal Environment, 12(2): 45-52. [In Persian]
  5. Amanzougarene Z., Yuste S., Castrillo C., Fondevila M. 2018. In vitro acidification potential and fermentation pattern of cereal grains incubated with inoculum of animals given forage or concentrate-based diets. Animal Production Science, 58: 2300-2307.
  6. Amanzougarene Z., Yuste S., Fondevila M. 2020. Fermentation pattern of several carbohydrate sources incubated in an in vitro semicontinuous system with inocula from ruminants given either forage or concentrate-based diets. Animals, 10: e261.
  7. AOAC. 1990. Official methods of analysis. Association of official analytical chemists. Virginia, USA: AOAC.
  8. Chen X.B. 1995. "Fitcurve" macro, IFRU, The Macaulay Institute, Aberdeen, UK.
  9. Chiaravalli M., Rapetti L., Rota Graziosi A., Galassi G., Crovetto G.M., Colombini S. 2019. Comparison of faecal versus rumen inocula for the estimation of NDF digestibility. Animals, 9(9): e928.
  10. Cone J.W., van Gelder A.H., Bachmann H. 2002. Influence of inoculum source on gas production profiles. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 99: 221–231.
  11. Cutrignelli, M.I, Calabro S., Tudisco R., Zicarelli F., Gazaneo M.P., Piccolo V. 2005. Comparison of buffalo rumen liquor and buffalo faeces as inoculum for the in vitro gas production technique. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 4(suppl. 2): 319-321.
  12. El Shaer H.M., Omed H.M., Chamberlain A.G., Axford R.F.E. 1987. Use of faecal organisms from sheep for the in vitro determination of digestibility. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 109: 257-259.
  13. Franzan B.C., Franco T.W., Stefani G., Pereira M.M., Almeida F.Q., Silva V.P. 2018. Equine fecal inoculum optimization in in vitro fermentation assays of dehydrated roughage. Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia, 47: e20180006.
  14. Getachew G., Crovetto G.M., Fondevila M., Krishnamoorthy U., Singh B., Spanghero M., Steingass H., Robinson P.H., Kailas M.M. 2002. Laboratory variation of 24 h in vitro gas production and estimated metabolizable energy values of ruminant feeds. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 102: 169-180.
  15. González-García U.A., Corona L., Castrejón-Pineda F., Balcells J., Castelán-Ortega O., González-Ronquillo M. 2018. A comparison of processed sorghum grain using different digestion techniques. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46: 1-9.
  16. Gressley T.F., Hall M.B., Armentano L.E. 2011. Ruminant nutrition symposium: Productivity, digestion, and health responses to hindgut acidosis in ruminants. Journal of Animal Science, 89:1120-1130.
  17. Harlow B.E., Donley T.M., Lawrence L.M., Flythe M.D. 2015. Effect of starch source (corn, oats or wheat) and con-centration on fermentation by equine faecal microbiota in vitro. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 119: 1234-44.
  18. Jang J.C., Zeng Z., Shurson G.C., Urriola P.E. 2019. Effects of gas production recording system and pig fecal inoculum volume on kinetics and variation of in vitro fermentation using corn distiller’s dried grains with solubles and soybean hulls. Animals, 9(10): e773.
  19. Kiran D., Krishnamoorthy U. 2007. Rumen fermentation and microbial biomass synthesis indices of tropical feedstuffs determined by the in vitro gas production technique. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 134: 170–179.
  20. Koehler P., Wieser H. 2013. Chemistry of cereal grains. In: Handbook on sourdough biotechnology. Springer New York Heidelberg Dordrecht London. pp: 11-45.
  21. Laudadio V., Lacalandra G.M., Monaco D., Khorchani T., Hammadi M., Tufarelli V. 2009. Faecal liquor as alternative microbial inoculum source for in vitro (DaisyII) technique to estimate the digestibility of feeds for camels. Journal of Camelid Science, 2: 1-7.
  22. Maheri-Sis N., Chamani1 M., Sadeghi A.A., Mirza- Aghazadeh A., Aghajanzadeh-Golshani A. 2008. Nutritional evaluation of kabuli and desi type chickpeas (cicer arietinum L.) for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique. African Journal of Biotechnology, 7(16): 2946-2951.
  23. Makkar H.P.S. 2003. Effects and fate of tannins in ruminant animals, adaptation to tannins, and strategies to overcome detrimental effects of feeding tannin-rich feeds. Small Ruminant Research, 49: 241-256.
  24. Makkar H.P.S. 2005. In vitro gas methods for evaluation of feeds containing phytochemicals. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 123-124: 291-302.
  25. Mansuri H., Nikkhah A., Rezaeian M., Moradi Shahrbaback M., Mirhadi S.A. 2003. Determination of roughages degradability through in vitro gas production and nylon bag techniques. Iranian Journal of Agricultural Science, 34 (2): 495-507. [In Persian]
  26. Mauricio R.M., Owen E., Mould F.L., Givens I., Theodorou M.K., France J., Davies D.R., Dhanoa M.S. 2001. Comparison of bovine rumen liquor and bovine faeces as inoculum for an in vitro gas production technique for evaluating forages. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 89: 33-48.
  27. Menke K.H., Steingass H. 1988. Estimation of energetic feed value obtained from chemical analysis and in vitro production using rumen fluid. Animal Research and Development, 28: 7-55.
  28. National Research Council (NRC). 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th revised edition. National Academy of Science, Washington, DC.
  29. Orskov E.R., McDonald I. 1979. The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurement weight according to rate of passage. Journal of Agricultural Science, 92: 499-503.
  30. Parand E., Taghizadeh A. 2011. Examination of digestibility of processed barley grain with different methods, using gas production technique with two sources of inocola. Animal Science Researchs, 20(2):1-13. [In Persian]
  31. Parnian F., Taghizadeh A., Nobari B.B. 2013. Use of in vitro gas production technique to evaluate the effects of microwave irradiation on sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and wheat (Triticum sp.) nutritive values and fermentation characteristics. Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 2(2): 125-130.
  32. Parnian F., Taghizadeh A., Paya H., Nobari B.B. 2014. In vitro fermentation response to alkaline treated sorghum grain. Journal of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 3(1): 23-28.
  33. Parnian khaje dizaj f., Taghizadeh A., Moghaddam G.A., Janmohammadi H. 2011. Use of in vitro gas production technique for evaluation of nutritive parameters of barley and corn grain treated by different microwave irradiation times. Animal Science Researchs, 21(1): 15-27. [In Persian]
  34. SAS. 2001. SAS for Windows Version 8.02, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  35. Umucalilar H.D., Coskun B., Gulsen N. 2002. In situ rumen degradation and in vitro gas production of some selected grains from Turkey. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 86: 288-297.
  36. Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74: 3583-3597.
  37. Wang M., Jiang J., Tan Z.L., Tang S.X., Sun Z.H., Han X.F. 2009. In situ ruminal crude protein and starch degradation of three classes of feedstuffs in goats. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 36: 23-28.
  38. Youssef I.M.I., Kamphues J. 2018. Fermentation of lignocellulose ingredients in vivo and in vitro via using fecal and caecal inoculums of monogastric animals (swine/turkeys). Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7: 407-413.
  39. Zicarelli F., Calabro S., Cutrignelli M.I., Infascelli F., Tudisco R., Bovera F., Piccolo V. 2011. In vitro fermentation characteristics of diets with different forage/concentrate ratios: Comparison of rumen and faecal inocula. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91:1213-1221.
  40. Zhao G.Y., Chen X.J. 2004. The suitability of a faecal suspension of sheep as inocula for the estimation of utilizable crude protein of feeds by in vitro incubation. Archives of Animal Nutrition, 58(2): 137-148.