اثر سطوح مختلف دارچین و کربوهیدرات بر فاکتورهای رشد و شاخص‌های ایمنی ماهی قزل آلای رنگین کمان (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

گروه شیلات، واحد قائم‌‌شهر، دانشگاه آزاداسلامی، قائم شهر، ایران

چکیده

در مطالعه حاضر تاثیر سطوح مختلف دارچین (Cinnamomum verum) در دو سطح کربوهیدرات بالا (30 درصد) و پایین (20 درصد) جیره بر عملکرد رشد و برخی از فاکتورهای ایمنی بچه­ ماهیان قزل­آلای رنگین کمان (Oncrhynchus mykiss)  مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. برای این منظور، 360 قطعه قزل­آلای رنگین کمان با میانگین وزنی 33/1 ± 12/16 (میانگین ± انحراف معیار) گرم با شش جیره شامل جیره اول (کربوهیدرات پایین؛ 20 درصد کربوهیدرات)، جیره دوم (کربوهیدرات پایین و 3 درصد دارچین)، جیره سوم (کربوهیدرات پایین و 5 درصد دارچین)، جیره چهارم (کربوهیدرات بالا؛ 30 درصد کربوهیدرات)، جیره پنجم (کربوهیدرات بالا و 3 درصد دارچین) و جیره ششم (کربوهیدرات بالا و 5 درصد دارچین) به مدت 56 روز تغذیه شدند. مطابق نتایج به‌دست‌آمده تاثیر جیره حاوی کربوهیدرات و دارچین بر میزان وزن نهایی و افزایش وزن معنی­دار بوده (05/0 < p)، به طوری­که بیشترین وزن نهایی و افزایش وزن در جیره 2 (کربوهیدرات پایین و 3درصد دارچین) و جیره 3 (کربوهیدرات پایین و 5 درصد دارچین) مشاهده شد که با جیره 6 (کربوهیدرات بالا و 5 درصد دارچین) اختلاف معنی­دار نداشتند (05/0 < p). نتایج شاخص­های خون شناسی مربوط به گلبول سفید و شمارش افتراقی آن در ماهیان قزل­آلای رنگین کمان نشان داد که اختلاف معنی­داری بین تیمارها در میزان گلبول سفید، مونوسیت، بازوفیل، نوتروفیل و ائوزینوفیل مشاهده نشده است (05/0 < p). اما درصد لنفوسیت تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار گرفته و بالاترین درصد لنفوسیت در ماهیان تغذیه شده با جیره 3 مشاهده شده است (05/0 > p). سطح فعالیت آنزیم لیزوزیم، ایمنوگلوبولین و سیستم کامپلمان تحت تاثیر تیمارهای آزمایشی قرار نگرفتند (05/0 < p). با توجه به نتایج مربوط به عملکرد رشد و برخی از شاخص­های ایمنی ماهیان تغذیه شده با جیره دوم و سوم عملکرد مناسب­تری نسبت به سایر تیمارها داشتند داشتد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effects of Different Levels of Cinnamon and Carbohydrates on Growth Performance and Immune Factors in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mitra Ravardshiri
  • Somayeh Bahram
  • seyed Rohollah Javadian
  • Masomeh Bahrekazemi
Department of Fisheries, Islamic Azad University, Ghaemshahr Branch, Ghaemshahr, Iran
چکیده [English]

In the present study, the effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) on growth performance and some immune factors of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated at two levels in high- and low-carbohydrate diets. A total of 360 rainbow trout with an average initial weight of 16.12 ± 1.33 g (mean ± SD) were fed by six diets including Diet1 (low carbohydrate level; 20 % carbohydrate), Diet2 (low carbohydrate level and 3 % cinnamon), Diet3 (low carbohydrate level and 5 % cinnamon), Diet4 (high carbohydrate level; 30 % carbohydrate), Diet5 (high carbohydrate level and 3 % cinnamon), and Diet6 (high carbohydrate level and 5 % cinnamon) for 56 days. The results revealed that the effect of diet containing carbohydrates and cinnamon on the final weight and weight gain was significant and the highest final weight and weight gain were observed in diet 2 (low carbohydrates and 3% cinnamon) and Diet 3 (low carbohydrates and 5% cinnamon) with no significant difference with Diet 6 (high carbohydrate and 5% cinnamon). The results of hematopoietic indices related to white blood cells and their differential count in rainbow trout showed no significant difference between the treatments in the number of white blood cells, monocytes, basophils, neutrophils, and eosinophils. However, the lymphocyte level was affected by experimental treatments and the highest level was observed in fish fed by Diet 3. There was no significant difference in lysozyme activity, immunoglobulin, and the complement system. According to the results related to growth performance and some immune indicators, fish fed by Diets 2 and 3 had better performance than other treatments.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Cinnamon
  • Carbohydrates
  • Rainbow trout
  • immune response
  1. Akrami R., Ahmadi Z., Chitsaz H., Shamlofar M., Habibi Nodeh F., Sadeghi Asl F., Zarrini N. 2018. Effect of feed supplemented with Ginger (Zangiber Officinale) extract on the growth, biochemical and hemato-immunological parameters of Rainbow Trout (Oncrohynchus Mykiss). Journal of Veterinary Research, 73: 155-163. (In Persian).
  2. Abdel-Tawwab M., Samir F., Abd El-Naby A.S., Monier M.N., Antioxidative and immunostimulatory effect of dietary cinnamon nanoparticles on the performance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.) and its susceptibility to hypoxia stress and Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish & Shellfish Immunology, 74: 19-25.
  3. Ahmed M.H., El Mesallamy A.M., Samir F., Zahran F., 2011. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on growth performance, feed utilization, whole-body composition, and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila in Nile tilapia. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 23: 289-298.
  4. Alsoodeeri F.N., Alqabbani H.M., Aldossari N.M., 2020. Effects of Cinnamon (Cinnamomum cassia) Consumption on Serum Lipid Profiles in Albino Rats. Journal of Lipids, 2020: 8469830.
  5. Asadi M., Abedian Kenari A., Esmaeili M., 2020. Restricted- protein feeding strategy decreased the protein consumption without impairing growth performance, flesh quality and non-specific immune parameters in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture, 531: 735946.
  6. Asghari M., Abedian Kenari A., Esmaeili M., Rombenso A., 2020. Effects of hydroalcoholic extract of honeybee pollen on growth performance, flesh quality, and immune and stress response response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquaculture Nutrition, 26: 1505-1519.
  7. Bennick A., 2002. Interaction of plant polyphenols with salivary proteins. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine, 13: 184-196.
  8. Citarasu T., 2010. Herbal biomedicines: a new opportunity for aquaculture industry. Aquaculture International, 18: 403-414.
  9. Cottrell J.J., Furness J.B., Wijesiriwardana U.A., Ringuet M., Liu F., DiGiacomo K., Leury B.J., Clarke I.J., Dunshea F.R., 2020. The Effect of Heat Stress on Respiratory Alkalosis and Insulin Sensitivity in Cinnamon Supplemented Pigs. Animals, 10: 690-698.
  10. El-Hack A., Mohamed E., Alagawany M., Abdel-Moneim A.M.E., Mohammed N.G., Khafaga A.F., Elnesr S.S., 2020. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) oil as a potential alternative to antibiotics in poultry. Antibiotics, 9(5): 210.
  11. Ellis A.E., 1977. The leucocytes of fish: a review. Journal of Fish Biology, 11: 453-491.
  12. Elumalai P., Kurian A., Lakshmi S., Faggio, C., Esteban M. A., Ringo E., 2020. Herbal immunomodulators in aquaculture. Reviews in Fisheries Science and Aquaculture, 1-25.
  13. Esmaeili M., Abedian Kenari A., Rombenso A., 2017. Effects of fish meal replacement with meat and bone meal using garlic (Allium sativum) powder on growth, feeding, digestive enzymes and apparent digestibility of nutrients and fatty acids in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). Aquaculture Nutrition, 23: 1225-1234.
  14. Esmaeili M., Abedian Kenari A., Rombenso A., 2017. Immunohematological status under acute ammonia stress of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) fed garlic (Allium sativum) powder-supplemented meat and bone meal-based feeds. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 26: 853-866.
  15. 2020. The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2020, Sustainability in action. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome.
  16. Ghosi Mobaraki M. R., Abedian Kenari A., Bahrami Gorji S., Esmaeili M., 2020. Effect of dietary fish and vegetable oil on the growth performance, body composition, fatty acids profile, reproductive performance and larval resistance in pearl gourami (Trichogaster leeri). Aquaculture Nutrition, 26: 894-907.
  17. Goel B., Mishra, S., 2020. Medicinal and Nutritional Perspective of Cinnamon: A Mini-review. European Journal of Medicinal Plants, 31: 10-16.
  18. Gumus E., Ikiz R., 2009. Effect of dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate on growth performance, chemical contents and digestibility in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbum, 1972. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 29: 59-63.
  19. He Z.D., Qiao C.F., Han Q.B., Cheng, C.L., Xu H.X., Jiang R.W., But P.P.H., Shaw P.C., 2005. Authentication and quantitative analysis on the chemical profile of cassia bark (Cortex cinnamomi) by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 53: 2424-2428.
  20. Khan A., Safdar M., Khan M.M.A., Khattak K.N., Anderson R.A., 2003. Cinnamon improves glucose and lipids of people with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes care, 26: 3215-3218.
  21. Kumari J., Sahoo P.K., Swain T., Sahoo S.K., Sahu B., Mohanty B.R., 2006. Seasonal variation in the innate immune parameters of the Asia catfish Clarias batrachus. Aquaculture, 252: 121-127.
  22. Mohamed A.B., Huseen F., Jawad O., 2012. Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zylenicum) supplementation on the intestinal selected bacterial population in Japanese quail. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences, 1: 276-278.
  23. Mohammadzadeh S., Noverian A.H., Ouraji H., Falahatkar B., 2017. Growth, body composition and digestive enzyme responses of Caspian Kutum, Rutilus frisii kutum (Kamenskii, 1901), juveniles fed different levels of carbohydrates. Applied Ichthyology, 2017: 1-8.
  24. Ogawa K., Honda M., Tanigawa A., Hatase A., Ito A., Higa Y., Morinaga O., 2020. Appetite-enhancing effects of inhaling cinnamon, clove, and fennel essential oils containing phenylpropanoid analogues. Journal of natural medicines, 74 (4): 710-721.
  25. Pandey D.K., Chaudhary R., Dey A., Nandy S., Banik R., Malik T., Dwivedi P., 2020. Current Knowledge of Cinnamomum Species: A review on the bioactive components, pharmacological properties, analytical and biotechnological studies. In Bioactive Natural Products in Drug Discovery, 3: 127-164.
  26. Ramezanzadeh S., Abedian Kenari A., Esmaeili M., Rombenso, A., 2020. Effects of different forms of barberry root (Berberis vulgaris) on growth performance, muscle fatty acids profile, whole‐body composition, and digestive enzymes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 52.2: 284-302.
  27. Rao P. V., Gan S. H., 2014. Cinnamon: a multifaceted medicinal plant. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2014: 642942.
  28. Rattanachaikunsopon P., Phumkhachorn., 2010. Potential of cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) oil to control Streptococcus iniae infection in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Fisheries Science, 26: 280-287.
  29. Saeed M., Kamboh A., Syed S., Babazadeh D., Suheryani I., Shah Q., Umar M., Kakar I., NaveedM., Abd El-Hack M., 2018. Phytochemistry and beneficial impacts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) as a dietary supplement in poultry diets. World's Poultry Science Journal, 74: 331-346.
  30. Santos H. O., da Silva G. A., 2018. To what extent does cinnamon administration improve the glycemic and lipid profiles? Clinical Nutrition ESPEN, 27:1-9.
  31. Setiawati M., Jusadi D., Laheng S., Suorayudi M.A., Vinasyiam A., 2014. The enhancement of growth performance and feed efficiency of Asian catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fed on Cinnamomum burmannii leaf powder and extract as nutritional supplementation. Aquaculture, aquarium conservation and legislation, 9: 1301-1309.
  32. Shirin P.R., Prakash J., 2010. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale). Journal of Medicinal Plant Research, 4: 2674-2679
  33. Sierra-Puente D., Abadi-Alfie S., Arakanchi-Altaled K., Bogard-Brondo M., García-Lascurain M., Gutiérrez-Salmean, G., 2020. Cinammon (Cinnamomum Spp.) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Current topics in nutraceutical research, 18: 247-255.
  34. Toghyani M., Toghyani M., Gheisari A., Ghalamkari G., Eghbalsaied S., 2011. Evaluation of cinnamon and garlic as antibiotic growth promoter substitutions on performance, immune responses, serum biochemical and haematological parameters in broiler chicks. Livestock Science, 138: 167-173.
  35. Van Wyk, B.E., Wink M., 2018. Medicinal plants of the world. CABI.
  36. Zhou Y., Jiang W.D., Zhang J.X., Feng L., Wu P., Liu Y., Jiang J., Kuang, S. Y., Tang L., Peng Y., 2020. Cinnamaldehyde improves the growth performance and digestion and absorption capacity in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish Physiology and Biochemistry, 46: 1589-1601